Version 1.0

 

 

The PRISM Source Vocabulary
PAM to PSV Guide

 

 

 

September 27, 2012

 

 

 

 

 

Description: idealliancelogo_cymk


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Table of Contents

1     Introduction.. 1

1.1         Purpose and Scope. 1

1.2         Relationship of PSV to PRISM... 1

1.3         Relationship of nextPub to PAM... 1

1.4         The PSV Namespace. 2

1.5         Diagrams. 2

1.6         The PSV Documentation Package. 3

1.7         The PRISM Documentation Package. 4

1.7.1      General Documents. 4

1.7.2      PRISM Metadata Specifications. 5

1.7.3      PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specifications. 6

1.7.4      PRISM Aggregator Message Markup Specification.. 6

1.7.5      PRISM Inline Markup Specification.. 7

1.8         PSV Content Management Schema. 7

1.9         Other PSV Schemas. 7

2     Tagging Overview.. 9

2.1         Unit of Content Tagging.. 9

2.1.1      Content Types. 9

2.1.2      Genres. 9

2.2         HTML5 PSV vs. XHTML PAM... 10

2.2.1      Elimination of pam: and pim: Elements. 11

2.2.2      Handling the <pim:quote Element. 11

2.2.3      Addition of New HTML5 Elements. 11

2.3         Comparison of High Level Structures. 11

2.3.1      PAM Structure. 11

2.3.2      PSV Structure. 12

3     Tagging Article Metadata. 13

3.1         Comparison of PSV Metadata to PAM Metadata. 13

3.2         New PSV Metadata Fields. 15

3.2.1      Content Type Field.. 15

3.2.2      Unique ID Field.. 15

3.2.3      Relations Metadata Fields. 15

3.2.4      Usage Rights Metadata Fields. 16

3.2.5      Component Metadata Fields. 17

3.2.6      Where Used Metadata Fields. 17

3.2.6.1        Aggregation Information Metadata. 18

3.2.6.2        Publication Information.. 18

3.2.6.3        Issue Information.. 18

3.2.6.4        Article Information.. 19

3.2.6.5        Website Information.. 20

3.2.6.6        Book Information.. 20

3.2.6.7        Chapter Information.. 21

3.2.6.8        Blog Information.. 21

3.2.6.9        Blog Entry Information.. 21

3.2.7      PAM to PSV Mapping Table. 22

3.2.8      Example Metadata Tagging.. 24

4     Tagging Content. 27

4.1         What Does this Mean?. 27

4.2         Sample Coding for Body Content. 27

5     Tagging Media. 29

5.1         About PAM Media. 29

5.2         About nextPub Media. 29

5.3         Sample Coding.. 30

5.4         About Tagging Media Metadata in nextPub.. 31

Appendix A      PAM Sample Tagging.. 35

Appendix B      Sample PSV Tagging.. 41

 

 



1        Introduction

1.1      Purpose and Scope

The IDEAlliance PSV Specification defines an encoding for XML elements and attributes in the psv: namespace to encode semantically rich source content.  Metadata fields and values used in this specification are drawn from the IDEAlliance PRISM Metadata and Controlled Vocabulary Specifications.  This Guide provides insights for those currently using the PRISM Aggregator Message about how PAM content can be expressed in PSV XML markup and about how these two markup schemas are different.

1.2      Relationship of PSV to PRISM

PSV builds upon the foundation of PRISM Specifications.  PSV defines XML structures for tagging source content, but it does not define its own metadata fields or controlled vocabularies.  nextPub is built upon PRISM and relies on the metadata fields and controlled vocabularies defined by PRISM.  Of necessity, PSV will require an update to the current version of PRISM because new metadata fields and controlled vocabularies and terms must be added to support PSV functionality.  Therefore PRISM 3.0 will be published simultaneously with the publication of nextPub 1.0 and will be highly referenced by the nextPub XML Source Specification.  See Figure 1.1.

1.3      Relationship of nextPub to PAM

PAM is the PRISM Aggregator Message.  PAM is an XML tag set built on the foundation of PRISM metadata and controlled vocabularies.  The use case for PAM was originally to encode magazine articles in XML to deliver content to aggregators.  While some publishers currently use PAM XML as a content source, that was not the original intent.  PAM is an application of PRISM, but PAM and PRISM are not synonymous.  PAM is an XML tag set that uses PRISM metadata for a very specific purpose while PRISM remains the core specification for metadata and controlled vocabularies.  See Figure 1.1.

Figure 1.1 Relationship of PRISM to PSV and PAM

1.4      The PSV Namespace

Dublin Core, PRISM, PRISM Usage Rights, PRISM Recipe Metadata and other relevant PRISM metadata namespaces along with the new psv: namespace will be utilized as appropriate.  XML Structures unique to this specification for content encoding will be given the namespace nextPub:

The recommended namespace for nextPub markup is:
xmlns:psv =”http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/psv/1.0/”

1.5      Diagrams

In this Specification, the PSV XML model and the PAM XML models are illustrated using model diagrams produced with the XML Spy product.  These diagrams show the element and attribute structures. 

The legend for reading XML model diagrams is shown in Figure 1.2.  Elements that are required by the model are shown in a solid box.  Elements that are optional are shown in a dotted box.  Likewise attributes may be required (solid box) or optional (dotted box).  A repeatable occurrence of elements is indicated by numbers below each element box to the right. 

The diagrams also indicate how elements are assembled. When building some models, elements may occur in a sequence with a specified order.  Other models provide a choice from among a number of elements.  The legend in Figure 1.2 shows the connectors for sequence and choice.

 

Figure 1.2 Legend for XML Diagrams

Note:There is no official schema for HTML5.  However, nextPub has developed a schema for the PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification.  This schema is specifically designed to be more restrictive than a true HTML5 schema would be in order to make source content encoding and transformations to delivery channel formats much more straightforward. The design goal is to define a valid HTML5 subset for the content encoding portion of nextPub.

1.6      The PSV Documentation Package

The nextPub Working Group has developed a series of specifications collectively known as the PRISM Source Vocabulary.  The use case for PSV is to encode semantically rich content that can be transformed and delivered to any platform in that platform-native format. This Specification is made up of a modular documentation package that builds on PRISM 3.0 and HTML5.  Over time new modules may be added to the documentation package.  The documentation package for the nextPub PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Version 1.0 consists of:

Document

Description

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Overview [PSVSO]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_overview.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_overview.htm

The Introduction to the PRISM Source Vocabulary provides an introduction and a non-technical overview of the PRISM Source Vocabulary.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification [PSVS]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV.htm

The PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification defines semantically rich for source metadata and content markup that can be transformed and served to a wide variety of output devices including eReaders, mobile tablet devices, smart phones and print.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Markup Specification [PSVMS]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_markkup.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_markup.htm

The PSV Markup Specification documents the XML tags in the PSV namespace that are used to encode XML Source Content.

PAM to PSV_Guide [PAMPSVGUIDE]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PAM_PSV.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PAM_PSV.htm

This Guide documents mappings from PAM XML to PSV XML.  It is normative only.

1.7      The PRISM Documentation Package

Because PSV is built on PRISM 3.0, there is a close relationship between the two specifications.  In fact, access to the PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package is critical to the implementation of PSV.  The PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package consists of:

1.8      The PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package

The PRISM Documentation Package consists of:

Because PSV is built on PRISM 3.0, there is a close relationship between the two specifications.  In fact, access to the PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package is critical to the implementation of PSV.  The PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package consists of:

1.8.1    General Documents

This is a set of general or overview documents that apply to PRISM.

Document

Description

PRISM Introduction [PRISMINT]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_introduction_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_introduction_3.0.htm

Overview, background, purpose and scope of PRISM; examples; contains no normative material.

PRISM Compliance [PRISMCOMP]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_compliance_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_compliance_3.0.htm

Describes three profiles of PRISM compliance for content and systems; includes normative material.

1.8.2    PRISM Metadata Specifications

This is the set of documents that outline the prism metadata fields and values by PRISM metadata category.  PRISM has modularized its metadata specification by namepace so users may pick those modules that meet their unique business requirements without having to implement the entire PRISM specification.

Document

Description

The PRISM Basic Metadata Specification [PRISMBMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Basic_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Basic_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the basic metadata elements contained in the PRISM namespace to describe article content; includes normative material.

PRISM Advertising Metadata Specification [PRISMADMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Advertising_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Advertising_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes advertising metadata elements including those drawn from AdsML, GWG and Ad-ID; includes normative material.

The PRISM Subset of Dublin Core Metadata Specification [PRISMDCMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Dublin_Core_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Dublin_Core_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements from the Dublin Core namespace that are included in PRISM; includes normative material.

The PRISM Image Metadata Specification [PRISMIMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Image_Metadata_Specification_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Image_Metadata_Specification_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Metadata for Images Namespace and other related image namespaces, includes normative material.

The PRISM Recipe Metadata Specification [PRISMRMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Recipe_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Recipe_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Recipe Metadata Namespace, includes normative material

The PRISM Usage Rights Metadata Specification [PRISMURMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Usage_Rights_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Usage_Rights_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Usage Rights Namespace; includes normative material. This namespace will supersede elements in both the prism: and prl: namespaces in version 3.0 of the specification.

1.8.3    PRISM Aggregator Message Markup Specification

This module documents the PRISM Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message.  At the time of the publication of the Introduction to PRISM, the PAM Message remains at version 2.1.   This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM PAM Markup Specification [PRISMPAMMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PAM_Markup_2.1.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PAM_Markup_2.1.htm

Describes the XML elements and attributes used to encode the PRISM Aggregator Message from both the pam: and pim: namespaces; includes normative material.

1.8.4    PRISM Inline Markup Specification

This module documents the PRISM Inline Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message.  This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM Inline Markup Specification [PRISMIMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PIM_Markup_Specification 3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PIM_Markup_Specification 3.0.htm

Describes the XML elements used to encode the inline markup for the PRISM Aggregator Message. Includes normative material.

1.8.5    PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specifications

These modules are new with PRISM 3.0.  All controlled vocabularies and their terms are documented in this publication set. 

Document

Description

The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Markup Specification [PRISMCVMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata fields in the PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Namespace that can be used to describe a controlled vocabulary.   Actual PRISM controlled vocabularies are now placed in the PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_CV_Spec_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_CV_Spec_3.0.htm

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies are now documented in this document.

1.9      PSV Content Management Schema

In order to assist implementers develop a PSV-based federated content management solution, the nextPub Working Group is providing an XML Schema (XSD) that can serve as the basis for the design of a PSV content repository. 

Note: The PSV CM schema is not designed for tagging content.  It is provided simply to serve as a basis for the design of a content repository.  Metadata building blocks from this schema can be combined with HTML5 by publishers who wish to develop a hybrid PSV metadata and content tagging schema.

1.10  Other PSV Schemas

Because PSV is a flexible framework, it supports many different use case scenarios.  A different schema, using the PSV metadata fields and content encoding can be developed for each different use case.  In order to assist PSV implementers, the nextPub Working Group is planning to provide a number of XML Schemas (XSDs) to support common use cases including tagging an article and transmitting articles to content aggregators.  These PSV sample schemas will be available from the nextPub website (http://www.nextpub.org) and documented in the nextPub PSV Implementation Guide that will be published following the publication of this specification..


2        Tagging Overview

This section provides an overview of source encoding for PAM and PSV.  The philosophy for moving from the existing PRISM Aggregator Message will be discussed.  Then a high-level overview of the source structure will be highlighted.

2.1      Unit of Content Tagging

When defining PSV source content tagging, a new concept, the content type was developed.  In fact PSV XML tagging requires that the unit of storage, or prism:contentType must be specified.  In addition the prism:genre has been updated so that prism:genre is used to refine the prism:contentType.  For the purposes of mapping PAM to PSV a direct mapping with the article as the default unit of content is assumed.

Note:  The use cases for nextPub have expanded the scope of PRISM metadata fields and controlled vocabularies beyond the scope of magazines, newsletters and journals.  PAM mapping will only consider those fields and controlled vocabulary terms that relate to the use case for PAM and that is magazines.

2.1.1    Content Types

The use cases for nextPub have expanded the scope of PRISM beyond the article.  This, in turn, has introduced the concept of a prism:contentType to the PRISM Specification.  Content Type has not been included in PAM for the purposes of marking up magazine content for delivery to aggregators as the assumption is that PAM will remain as a method for delivering article content to aggregators and will not extend to other content types.

2.1.2    Genres

The PRISM Genre Controlled Vocabulary has been enhanced to refine the intellectual description of core content units in PRISM 3.0 and for PSV. Because PAM assumes only the delivery of article content, only the genre that can refine the description of an article need be considered. 

Again, since the scope of PSV is broader than the scope for PAM, only a limited number of the new PRISM 3.0 genre terms make sense for use with PAM markup.  Those fields include:

·        adaptation (refines article)

·        analysis (refines article)

·        autobiography (refines article)

·        biography (refines article)

·        calendar (refines article)

·        chronology (refines article)

·        clarification (refines article)

·        column  (refines article)

·        correction (refines article)

·        coverStory  (refines article)

·        coverPackageArticle  (refines article)

·        department (refines article)

·        electionResults  (refines article)

·        essay (refines article)

·        excerpt (refines article)

·        fashionShoot  (refines article)

·        faq (refines article)

·        feature  (refines article)

·        featurePackageArticle  (refines article)

·        fiction (refines article)

·        financialStatement  (refines article)

·        interview  (refines article)

·        letters (refines article)

·        list (refines article)

·        newsBulletin  (refines article)

·        notice (refines article)

·        obituary  (refines article)

·        opinion  (refines article)

·        photoEssay  (refines article)

·        profile  (refines article)

·        qAndA  (refines article)

·        quotation (refines article)

·        ranking (refines article)

·        reprint (refines article)

·        resources  (refines article)

·        response (refines article)

·        review (refines article)

·        schedule (refines article)

·        supplementArticle (refines article)

·        transcript (refines article)

·        userComments  (refines article)

·        userReview  (refines article)

·        wireStory  (refines article)

2.2      HTML5 PSV vs. XHTML PAM

When work began on the nextPub XML Source Specification, the majority of participants favored retaining PRISM/PAM XHTML as the source format and extending that source to take into account functionality required by the new use cases for content delivered to tablets, eReaders, smart phones and beyond.  However, as work progressed and transforms into the two key target delivery formats were considered, it became apparent that nextPub needed to be based on HTML5 rather than XHTML as PAM is.  Benefits of basing nextPub on HTML5 included the ability to easily transform into key delivery formats for new digital devices and the enhanced ability to handle rich media.

So what does this mean?

2.2.1    Elimination of pam: and pim: Elements

When PAM tagging was designed, the PRISM Working Group extended XHTML with new XML elements in the pam: namespace. 

For PSV we made the decision that we will NOT extend the HTML5 tag set that native HTML5 browsers and processors are expecting.  Hence this leads to some changes in how PSV article content is tagged when compared to PAM tagging.  And it means we no longer have use of <pam: or <pim: elements.

2.2.2    Handling the <pim:quote Element

HTML5 has a quote (<q) element that is used to mark quotations.  This should be used to represent <pim:quote>.  Note that browsers often put quotation marks in the display when <q is used.

2.2.3    Addition of New HTML5 Elements

When designing PSV tagging schema, the decision was made to leverage several new HTML5 tags.  These new tags include:

2.3      Comparison of High Level Structures

PAM is all about tagging article level content to send to content aggregators.  nextPub is about tagging content to store in a content management system for assembly into publication products.

2.3.1    PAM Structure

PAM tagging supports sending a message containing one or more articles.  Articles allow metadata entry in the <head and the content is coded with XHTML-based body tags.  See Figure 2.1.

Figure 2.1 PAM Structure

2.3.2    PSV Structure

PSV has a different XML model than does PAM.  Since PSV is designed as a storage format for source content, it has a very well-organized and robust metadata block followed by a block for content which is a parsable subset of HTML5. 

Note: Although there is an optional <meta tag in the HTML5 <head structure, it is not to be used to store metadata about the article.  The recommended PSV  HTML5 subset definition for the <head only allows structures such as <link and <styles but does not allow for the encoding of metadata.  Metadata is expected to be consolidated in the PSV<metadata block.

Figure 2.2 PSV Structure


3        Tagging Article Metadata

This section provides an overview of metadata tagging for PAM and PSV. Differences between the two approaches to tagging metadata will be discussed.  Elements currently in PAM that are not used in PSV will be discussed.

3.1      Comparison of PSV Metadata to PAM Metadata

Because PSV metadata is built on PRISM but not directly on PAM and because PSV has a completely different use case, there are differences in the metadata blocks describing an article.  The major differences between PAM and PSV metadata encoding are: 

See Figure 3.1 to view the PAM metadata structure.

Figure 3.1 PAM Metadata

The nextPub use cases rely on the metadata in the <psv:metadata block of the article to enable content management and the automated aggregation units of content for any purpose, from creating an issue of a magazine to creating a bookazine or even to new collection types in the future.  When nextPub moved away from the PRISM/PAM XML model, the Working Group developed high-level organizational structures to provide for easier query, evaluation and access.  See Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 PSV Metadata

3.2      New PSV Metadata Fields

PSVadds prism:contentType to indicate the of the nature of the asset that is tagged and stored.  This is being added to PAM 2.2 as well.   See Section 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 for information about the content types and genre that apply to PAM tagging for magazine content.

In addition, PSV adds new categories of metadata. 

3.2.1    Content Type Field

PSV has many publication types and content units within its scope.  The same is not true for PAM.  To map PAM to PSV the prism:contentType field should be set to the value “article”.

3.2.2    Unique ID Field

In PAM 2.2, a unique ID in the form of dc:identifier is required.  This maps directly into the psv:uniqueID block of PSV.  See Figure 3.3.

Figure 3.3 ID Block Structure

3.2.3    Relations Metadata Fields

In PAM 2.2, relationship metadata fields were included in the <head model.  These fields were simply options in the head metadata block and were not found within their own metadata block.  PSV refines that model by providing a special block for the indication of relations metadata.  All fields indicating relationships must be mapped into the <psv:relations block.  See Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4 Relations Metadata Structure

3.2.4    Usage Rights Metadata Fields

In PAM 2.1, usage rights metadata fields were included in the <head model.  These fields were simply options in the head metadata block and were not found within their own metadata block.  PSV refines that model by providing a special block for the indication of usage rights.  All fields with a pur: namespace must be mapped into the <psv:usageRights block.  These fields include

 

Figure 3.5 Usage Rights Metadata

3.2.5    Component Metadata Fields

New metadata found in PSV but not in PRISM is component metadata.  In PAM, metadata can be coded in the body of the article using <pim: markup or within the pam:media structure.  In PSV, the content is compliant with HTML5 and no metadata may be included directly in the body.  Hence the metadata is coded in the “component” metadata block and linked to the structure in the body by matching the id= in the body to a refines= attribute in the components block.  Note that the refines= syntax matches that used in EPUB 3 where refines= is a “URI”. This means that the value is preceded by a # sign to indicate the path for the link being specified.  In this way PSV metadata is much more sophisticated than metadata coded with PAM markup.

Figure 3.6 Component Metadata

3.2.6    Where Used Metadata Fields

Because PSV is about tagging content to store in a content management system for assembly into publication products, the prism:originPlatform does not make sense for inclusion in the PSV tag set.  In its place a metadata block, <psv:whereUsed, has been developed.  Metadata in this block tracks usage of content over time.  See Figure 3.7.  Note that some PRISM metadata associated with an article in PAM is now included in the PSV “where used” block.

Figure 3.7 Where Used Metadata

3.2.6.1    Aggregation Information Metadata

The prism:aggregationType field is included in PAM and in PSV.  It should be included in the psv:aggregationInfo block.  If prism:platform is available, it will be mapped into this block as well.  See Figure 3.7.

Figure 3.7 Aggregation Info Structure

3.2.6.2    Publication Information

PAM includes numerous fields that specify information about the publication in the <head element.  These all should be mapped into the psv:publicationInfo block.  See Figure 3.8.

 

Figure 3.8 Publication Info Structure

3.2.6.3    Issue Information

PAM includes numerous fields that specify information about the issue in the <head element.  These all should be mapped into the psv:issueInfo block.  See Figure 3.9.

Figure 3.9 Issue Info Structure

3.2.6.4    Article Information

PAM includes numerous fields that specify information about the article in the <head element.  These all should be mapped into the psv:articleInfo block.  See Figure 3.10.

Figure 3.10 Article Info Structure

3.2.6.5    Website Information

PAM includes numerous fields that specify information about a website in the <head element.  These all should be mapped into the psv:websiteInfo block.  See Figure 3.11.

Figure 3.11 Website Info Structure

3.2.6.6    Book Information

PAM includes book ISBN in the <head element.  This should be mapped into the psv:bookInfo block.  See Figure 3.12.

Figure 3.12 Book Info Structure

3.2.6.7    Chapter Information

PAM does not contain chapter information so no data should be mapped from PAM to PSV for this block.  See Figure 3.13.

Figure 3.13 Chapter Info Structure

3.2.6.8    Blog Information

PAM does not contain blog information so no data should be mapped from PAM into PSV for this block.  See Figure 3.14.

Figure 3.14 Blog Info Structure

3.2.6.9    Blog Entry Information

PAM does not contain blog entry information so no data should be mapped from PAM into PSV for this block.  See Figure 3.15.

Figure 3.15 Blog Entry Info Structure

3.2.7    PAM to PSV Mapping Table

The following table contains all possible elements found in the PAM 2.2 <head and their mappings into PSV metadata blocks.

PAM Heading Element

PSV Metadata Mapping

dc:identifier

psv:uniqueID > psv:IDBlk

dc:contributor

psv:description

dc:creator

psv:description

dc:description

psv:description

dc:publisher

psv:whereUsed > psv:publicationInfo

dc:subject

psv:description

dc:title

psv:uniqueID > psv:IDBlk

dcterms:hasPart

psv:relations

dcterms:isPartOf

psv:relations

pam:status

NO Mapping

prism:academicField

psv:description

prism:aggregateIssueNumber

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:aggregationType

psv:whereUsed > psv:aggregationInfo

prism:alternateTitle

psv:uniqueID > psv:IDBlk

prism:channel

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:channel1

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:channel2

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:channel3

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:channel4

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:copyright

psv:usageRights = pur:copyright

prism:corporateEntity

psv:whereUsed > psv:publicationInfo

prism:coverDate

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:coverDisplayDate

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:dateReceived

NO Mapping

prism:doi

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:edition

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:eIssn

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:embargoDate

psv:usageRights = pur:embargoDate

prism:event

psv:description

prism:expirationDate

psv:usageRights = pur:expirationDate

prism:genre

psv:description

prism:hasCorrection

psv:relations

prism:industry

psv:description

prism:isbn

psv:whereUsed > psv:bookInfo

prism:issn

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:issueIdentifier

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:issueName

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:issueTeaser

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:issueType

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:keyword

psv:description

prism:link

psv:description

prism:location

psv:description

prism:number

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:object

psv:description

prism:organization

psv:description

prism:originPlatform

No Mapping

prism:pageRange

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:person

psv:description

prism:profession

psv:description

prism:publicationDate

psv:whereUsed >:issueInfo

prism:publicationName

psv:whereUsed > psv:publicationInfo

prism:section

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:seriesNumber

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:seriesTitle

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:sport

psv:description

prism:startingPage

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:subsection1

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:subsection2

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:subsection3

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:subsection4

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:subtitle

psv:uniqueID > psv:IDBlk

prism:supplementDisplayID

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:supplementStartingPage

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:supplementTitle

psv:whereUsed > psv:articleInfo

prism:teaser

psv:description

prism:ticker

psv:description

prism:timePeriod

psv:description

prism:url

psv:whereUsed > psv:websiteInfo

prism:uspsNumber

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:versionIdentifier

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:volume

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

prism:wordCount

psv:articleInfo

publicationDisplayDate

psv:whereUsed > psv:issueInfo

pur:adultContentWarning

psv:usageRights

pur:agreement

psv:usageRights

pur:copyright

psv:usageRights

pur:creditLine

psv:usageRights

pur:embargoDate

psv:usageRights

pur:exclusivityEndDate

psv:usageRights

pur:expirationDate

psv:usageRights

pur:imageSizeRestriction

psv:usageRights

pur:optionEndDate

psv:usageRights

pur:permissions

psv:usageRights

pur:restrictions

psv:usageRights

pur:reuseProhibited

psv:usageRights

pur:rightsAgent

psv:usageRights

pur:rightsOwner

psv:usageRights

3.2.8    Example Metadata Tagging

Here is an example of the metadata head coded in PRISM/PAM markup:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>

<pam:message>

  <pam:article xml:lang="en-US">

    <head>

      <dc:identifier>20110502044</dc:identifier>

      <prism:issueIdentifier>SI20110502</prism:issueIdentifier>

      <prism:originPlatform prism:platform="print"/>

      <dc:title>Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</dc:title>

      <dc:creator role="writer">Phil Taylor</dc:creator>

      <prism:publicationName>Sports Illustrated</prism:publicationName>

      <prism:issn>0038-822X</prism:issn>

      <prism:coverDate>2011-05-02</prism:coverDate>

      <prism:coverDisplayDate>May 2, 2011</prism:coverDisplayDate>

      <prism:volume>114</prism:volume>

      <prism:number>18</prism:number>

      <prism:startingPage>44</prism:startingPage>

      <prism:section>BASEBALL</prism:section>

      <prism:subsection1>THE ROCKIES</prism:subsection1>

      <prism:wordcount>2175</prism:wordcount>

      <prism:genre>feature</prism:genre>

      <prism:organization>Colorado Rockies</prism:organization>

    </head>

Here is the new nextPub metadata block divided into blocks for easy access and to aid transformations into EPUB3:

  <psv:psv>

    <psv:metadata>

      <prism:contentType>article</prism:contentType>

      <psv:uniqueID>

       <psv:IDBlk>

         <dc:identifier>20110502044</dc:identifier>

         <dc:title>Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</dc:title>

       </nextPub:IDBlk>

      </nextPub:uniqueID>

      <psv:description>

        <prism:genre>feature</prism:genre>

        <dc:creator prism:role="writer">Phil Taylor</dc:creator>

        <prism:wordcount>2175</prism:wordcount>

        <prism:sport>baseball</prism:sport>

        <prism:organization>Colorado Rockies</prism:organization>

      </nextPub:description>

      <psv:whereUsed>
        <psv:aggregationInfo>

          <prism:aggregationType>magazine</prism:aggregationType>

          <prism:platform>tablet</prism:platform>

          <prism:device>iPad 1</prism:device>
        </psv:aggregationInfo>
        <psv:publicationInfo>

          <prism:publisher>IDEAlliance</prism:publisher>

          <prism:publicationName>Spectrum</prism:publicationName>

        </psv:publicationInfo>

        <psv:issueInfo>
          <prism:issueIdentifier>SI20110502</prism:issueIdentifier>

          <prism:coverDate>2011-05-02</prism:coverDate>

          <prism:coverDisplayDate>May 2, 2011</prism:coverDisplayDate>

          <prism:volume>114</prism:volume>

          <prism:number>18</prism:number>

          <prism:issn>0038-822X</prism:issn>

        </psv:issueInfo>

        <articleInfo>

          <prism:startingPage>44</prism:startingPage>

          <prism:section>BASEBALL</prism:section>

          <prism:subsection1>THE ROCKIES</prism:subsection1>

        </articleInfo>

      </nextPub:whereUsed>

    </nextPub:metadata>


4        Tagging Content

When the nextPub working group decided to base their tagging on HTML5, they had two choices.  First they could extend HTML5 to provide special nextPub functionality.  Or they could code content with valid HTML5 that could be handled by any HTML5 compliant browser or processor.  The Working Group opted for the latter. 

4.1      What Does this Mean?

The implication of this decision was that no direct use of special PAM or PIM elements for the body of the article can be included in nextPub HTML5. This means that pam:media and the <pim: elements could not be used.  The PAM media structure was replaced with the new HTML5 figure element.  And the <pim: elements can be mapped to a new PRISM Inline Class Markup Controlled Vocabulary to be used as classes for the HTML5 <span tag.  See the PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification [PSVS] for details about nextPub tagging for the body of an article.

4.2      Sample Coding for Body Content

Here is PRISM/PAM content encoding:

<body>

      <h1>Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</h1>

      <p prism:class="deck">

        <span class="emphasis">Why are fans so aglow in Colorado? Because Tulo, CarGo and Ubaldo—and a park that no longer plays like the game&apos;s highest plateau—are making the Rockies&apos; title hopes grow</span>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>It seemed</span> like a good idea to Troy Tulowitzki when he allowed fans to choose his walk-up music—the song played over the <pim:location>Coors Field</pim:location> public-address system as he approaches the batter&apos;s box—in an online poll before the season. But after the Rockies&apos; prolific shortstop followed his standout 2010 (.315 average, 27 home runs and a fifth-place finish in the National League MVP voting) by going hitless in his first eight at bats of this year, he quickly dumped the people&apos;s choice, Katy Perry&apos;s <span class="emphasis">Firework,</span> for something more in his comfort zone—<span class="emphasis">Baby,</span> by <pim:person>Justin Bieber</pim:person>.</p>

      <div prism:class="pullQuote">

        <p>&quot;WE TALK ALL THE TIME ABOUT HOW TO SET THE RIGHT TONE,&quot; CARGO SAYS OF TULO. &quot;WHAT CAN WE DO TODAY TO MAKE THIS TEAM BETTER?&quot;</p>

      </div>

Here is the same content coded in HTML5:

<body>

   <article class=”opinion” id=”xyz”>

      <h1 class=”prism:title”>Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</h1>

      <p class="prism:deck">

        <span class="emphasis">Why are fans so aglow in Colorado? Because Tulo, CarGo and Ubaldo—and a park that no longer plays like the game&apos;s highest plateau—are making the Rockies&apos; title hopes grow</span>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>It seemed</span> like a good idea to Troy Tulowitzki when he allowed fans to choose his walk-up music—the song played over the <span class=”prism:location”>Coors Field</span> public-address system as he approaches the batter&apos;s box—in an online poll before the season. But after the Rockies&apos; prolific shortstop followed his standout 2010 (.315 average, 27 home runs and a fifth-place finish in the National League MVP voting) by going hitless in his first eight at bats of this year, he quickly dumped the people&apos;s choice, Katy Perry&apos;s <span class="emphasis">Firework,</span> for something more in his comfort zone—<span class="emphasis">Baby,</span> by <span class=”prism:person>Justin Bieber</span>.</p>

      <aside class="prism:pullQuote">

        <p>&quot;WE TALK ALL THE TIME ABOUT HOW TO SET THE RIGHT TONE,&quot; CARGO SAYS OF TULO. &quot;WHAT CAN WE DO TODAY TO MAKE THIS TEAM BETTER?&quot;</p>

      </aside>

5        Tagging Media

This section provides documentation and guidelines for encoding media blocks.  The <pam:media element is used to communicate with aggregators about the media that was present in the article when it was presented in the print magazine.  In most cases the element <pam:media falls at the end of the article and users do not attempt to use the tag to actually place a media element in the flow of text.  Very few publishers actually send the media elements to aggregators, they simply alert the aggregators about media that appeared in the original publication.

In nextPub, on the other hand, the HTML5 figure, which replaces <pam:media, is used to not only place media in the proper position within the flow of text, but also to call in media elements so they can be rendered with the text when delivered to a display technology.  Hence the tagging within an HTML5 <figure is much different than tagging allowed in PAM <media.

5.1      About PAM Media

The structure of <pam:media is illustrated in Figure 5.1.  This structure is made up of many optional metadata fields about the media object related to the article.  Although it was not the intent, some publishers who are using PAM tagging as a content source format may be using the <pam:media tag to place the media (using the mediaReference) and to display it in the text.  Figure 5.1 shows the structure of PAM media with indications about how each tag may be used to capture metadata about the media or to tag the content of the media block.

Figure 5.1 PAM Media Structure

5.2      About nextPub Media

The nextPub media block concept was initially based on the pam:media element currently used in the existing PRISM Aggregator Message.  A media block presents one or more media objects along with ancillary text content so it is what is known as a “grouping” structure.  After the decision was made to base nextPub on HTML5, the <figure element was selected for coding a media block because it contains richness required to express the wide variety of media blocks that are found in tablet editions.  See Figure 5.2.

 

Figure 5.2 Figure Model

Two PRISM Figure Content Class metadata vocabulary terms have been developed for use with any text structure allowed in the figure. The terms included in this CV map directly to PAM content elements.  In nextPub, this mechanism replaces the use of <pam: content elements which are not HTML5 compatible:

#credit;  An acknowledgement, appearing in the style of a caption.

#mediaTitle:  The title of the media block or figure

5.3      Sample Coding

Here is a pam:media encoded media object:

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>PHOTO</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_opy6-95787-rawCOMBO.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>PEAK PERFORMERS</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:textDescription>Photo of two Rockies players that are prime performers</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>Gonzalez, Tulowitzki and Jimenez are all entering their primes and locked up through at least 2014, giving the Rockies the game&apos;s best young core.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

Here is the equivalent HTML5 encoding:

        <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_opy6-95787-rawCOMBO.jpg” alt=”Peak Performers”/>
          <p class=”
prism:mediaTitle”>PEAK PERFORMERS</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>Gonzalez, Tulowitzki and Jimenez are all entering their primes and locked up through at least 2014, giving the Rockies the game&apos;s best young core.</figcaption>

        </figure>

5.4      About Tagging Media Metadata in nextPub

One feature of the pam:media model which is difficult to represent in nextPub HTML5 is the inclusion of metadata for each media object.  In nextPub, each of these media objects (such as a photo or a video) is considered to be a Component.  Metadata for each media component is encoded using the nextPub component metadata encoding model.  See PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification [PSVS] for complete documentation about tagging component metadata.

In this model, some fields have equivalents and for most you can use the new PSV <meta tag:

Field description

PAM element

nextPub Metadata field -

The title of the resource.

<pam:mediaTitle

dc:title

An account of the content of the resource.

<pam:nonpubishedMediaTitle

<meta prefix=”pam” name=”nonpublishedMediaTitle” content=”xxx” />

Gives credit the provider of the image. This is not necessarily the same as the credit line that will appear in a publication.

<pam:credit

<meta prefix=”pam” name=”credit” content=”xxx” />

A brief publishable synopsis/summary of the contents of the photograph.   This is not the same as the title.

<pam:caption

<meta prefix=”pam” name=”captione” content=”xxx” />

The main topic or topics of the content of the resource.

<pam:textDescription

<meta prefix=”pam” name=”textDescription” content=”xxx” />

Note: For PSV, the component model requires a reference to a unique identifier for each component that appears in the body and a title.

While the majority of <pam:media is captured within the nextPub components metadata block and linked to the media object in the text with id/refines attribute pair, two key elements fall within the HTML5 body.

This table provides a mapping from <pam:media to HTML5:

PAM element

HTML5 Element

<pam:media

<figure

<pam:mediaRef

The media references within a figure (or media block) are coded with either <img, <embed, <audio or <video.  The src= is the link to pull the media object into the body of the article.  This is equivalent to the refid=”*” in <pam:mediaRef

A figure is a media block and so the figure typically presents one or more media objects along with ancillary text content.  This means that the figure is what HTML5 calls a “grouping structure.”  The figure bears an “id” that is unique within the article and links the media to a <psv:mediaComponent block with metadata for the media object.

Note: References to the media only appear in the HTML5 body text and not in the nextPub component media block.

 



Appendix A                PAM Sample Tagging

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='UTF-8'?>

<pam:message xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:TimeInc="http://www.timeinc.com/PRISM/2.1/" xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:dcterms="http://purl.org/dc/terms/" xmlns:pam="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/pam/2.0/" xmlns:pim="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/pim/2.0/" xmlns:prism="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/basic/2.0/" xmlns:prl="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/prl/2.0" xmlns:pur="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/prismusagerights/2.1/" xmlns:xhtml="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" prism:schemaVersion="String" xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml http://emagweb.timeinc.com/PRISM_2.1/PAMTimeInc.xsd">

  <pam:article xml:lang="en-US">

    <head>

      <dc:identifier>20110502044</dc:identifier>

      <prism:issueIdentifier>SI20110502</prism:issueIdentifier>

      <pam:status/>

      <prism:originPlatform prism:platform="print"/>

      <dc:title>Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</dc:title>

      <dc:creator role="writer">Phil Taylor</dc:creator>

      <prism:publicationName>Sports Illustrated</prism:publicationName>

      <prism:issn>0038-822X</prism:issn>

      <prism:coverDate>2011-05-02</prism:coverDate>

      <prism:coverDisplayDate>May 2, 2011</prism:coverDisplayDate>

      <prism:volume>114</prism:volume>

      <prism:number>18</prism:number>

      <prism:startingPage>44</prism:startingPage>

      <prism:section>BASEBALL</prism:section>

      <prism:subsection1>THE ROCKIES</prism:subsection1>

      <prism:wordCount/>

    </head>

    <body>

      <p class="deck">

        <span class="emphasis">Why are fans so aglow in Colorado? Because Tulo, CarGo and Ubaldo—and a park that no longer plays like the game&apos;s highest plateau—are making the Rockies&apos; title hopes grow</span>

      </p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>PHOTO</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_opy6-95787-rawCOMBO.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>PEAK PERFORMERS</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>Gonzalez, Tulowitzki and Jimenez are all entering their primes and locked up through at least 2014, giving the Rockies the game&apos;s best young core.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>It seemed</span> like a good idea to Troy Tulowitzki when he allowed fans to choose his walk-up music—the song played over the Coors Field public-address system as he approaches the batter&apos;s box—in an online poll before the season. But after the Rockies&apos; prolific shortstop followed his standout 2010 (.315 average, 27 home runs and a fifth-place finish in the National League MVP voting) by going hitless in his first eight at bats of this year, he quickly dumped the people&apos;s choice, Katy Perry&apos;s <span class="emphasis">Firework,</span> for something more in his comfort zone—<span class="emphasis">Baby,</span> by Justin Bieber.</p>

      <p>It might be a stretch to say that Tulo, as he&apos;s widely known, has Bieber fever, but he is partial to the teen pop star&apos;s music and doesn&apos;t care who

knows it. He and teammate Jason Giambi took in a Bieber concert during spring training, and Tulo is willing to put up with the inevitable ribbing from the rest of the Rockies, who keep his locker at Coors stocked with Bieber-obilia. Last week his space was adorned with a glittery backpack and a T-shirt bearing the singer&apos;s likeness that most middle school girls would surely be proud to own. &quot;Lots of comedians in this clubhouse,&quot; Tulowitzki says. &quot;I just go with the flow.&quot;</p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>PHOTO</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_opy6-98460-raw.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>DOUBLE THREAT</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>Tulowitzki and Gonzalez have a thriving partnership in the lineup, in the clubhouse and in the NL MVP balloting, where both finished in the top five last year.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>Even though they might not want to trade iPods with Tulowitzki, 26, none of the Rockies would dream of suggesting he change his tune. He went on one of his familiar Tulo tears shortly after the sound track switch, almost single-handedly demolishing the Mets with home runs in four straight games, and through Sunday he was hitting .333 with seven homers, tying him with the Cardinals&apos; Albert Pujols and Ryan Braun of the Brewers for the National League home run lead. Besides, although his new signature song isn&apos;t exactly a lyrical masterpiece, it does have one line—in fact, it&apos;s repeated so much it seems like the only line—that&apos;s especially appropriate for the Rockies: <span class="emphasis">Baby, baby, baby, oh.</span></p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>VIDEO</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="http://mlb.com/video/play.jsp?content_id=2586034"/>

          <pam:caption>A HUMOROUS LOOK AT THE COORS HUMIDOR</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>Put the emphasis on the <span class="emphasis">oh.</span> That&apos;s a joyful sound in Colorado these days, thanks not just to Tulo, but to CarGo and Ubaldo. CarGo is otherwise known as leftfielder Carlos Gonzalez, 25, last year&apos;s NL batting champ. The linchpin of the Rockies&apos; staff is Ubaldo Jimenez, 27, who finished third in the NL Cy Young Award voting in 2010. Due mostly to a thumb injury that forced him to miss two starts, Jimenez has started slowly, but the Rockies haven&apos;t. Tulowitzki&apos;s performance, both with bat and glove, and solid pitching from starters Jhoulys Chacin and Jorge De La Rosa, as well as the entire bullpen, helped put Colorado atop the NL West with a 14—7 record through Sunday. The Rockies appear set to contend not just this year but for the foreseeable future, and it&apos;s largely, as the Biebs might say, because of their O&apos;s, baby.</p>

      <p>It&apos;s also because of a long-term philosophy that ensures the O trio won&apos;t be leaving anytime soon. Back in the &apos;90s, when the Rockies were playing something closer to pinball than baseball because of the way the ball carried in the mile-high altitude of their home park, finding one of baseball&apos;s most sensible organizational blueprints in Colorado would have seemed as likely as discovering a gourmet meal in an Easy-Bake Oven. But just as the introduction of a humidor at Coors in 2002—baseballs stored in it don&apos;t carry like golf balls—has normalized the game in Denver, the Rockies have devised a smart, down-to-earth approach.</p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>SLIDESHOW</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>SLIDESHOW: SEE THE VISITING PITCHERS WHO PERFORM BEST AT COORS FIELD</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>TIM LINCECUM In nine career starts at Coors Field, the Freak has a 3.49 ERA, the best among all hurlers who have thrown at least 40 innings there and never played for the Rockies.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>SLIDESHOW</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss2.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>TOM GLAVINE</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>BRIAN BAHR/GETTY IMAGES</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>The Braves lefty made 13 starts at Coors (including eight in the prehumidor days) and had a 3.68 ERA there, second best among visitors.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>SLIDESHOW</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss3.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>DAN HAREN</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>GARRETT W. ELLWOOD/GETTY IMAGES</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>The righthander (now with the Angels) has made seven starts at Coors and gone 4—2 with a 3.80 ERA there, third best among visiting pitchers.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>SLIDESHOW</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss4.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>BRETT MYERS</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>DUSTIN BRADFORD/ICON SMI</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>The righty (now with the Astros) has a career ERA of 4.18”but that figure drops to 3.92 (with a 5”0 record) in his six starts at Coors.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>SLIDESHOW</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss5.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>BRAD PENNY</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>In 11 starts at Coors, the righty (now with the Tigers) is 6”1 with a 3.92 ERA, tying him with Myers for the fourth-best mark there among visitors.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p>Having been burned in the past by throwing big bucks at older free agents who failed miserably on the field and sometimes embarrassed the franchise away from it, Colorado&apos;s front office has become more selective about making major financial commitments. They focus on retaining players who appear to be entering their prime rather than signing older, more established stars, and before the Rockies offer a long-term deal, they have to be satisfied not just with a player&apos;s skills but also with the content of his character. &quot;We found that talent that isn&apos;t also accompanied by other qualities, such as humility, accountability and integrity, really didn&apos;t work for us,&quot; says general manager Dan O&apos;Dowd. &quot;We&apos;ve tried to build this team not just with a certain kind of player but a certain quality of person.&quot;</p>

      <p>Gonzalez, Jimenez and Tulowitzki are perfect templates for the Rockies&apos; vision”young, gifted, industrious and squeaky-clean. That&apos;s why Colorado locked up CarGo with a seven-year, $80 million contract extension in January, two months

after it extended Tulowitzki&apos;s contract to make it a 10-year deal worth $157.75 million. They got in on the ground floor with Jimenez as well, signing him to a four-year deal in 2009 (with team options for &apos;13 and &apos;14) that could earn him $22.75 million and keep him in Denver two years after he would have been eligible for free agency.</p>

      <p>CarGo and Tulo in particular have formed a thriving partnership, not just in the middle of the order, where they bat third and fourth, but in the clubhouse. &quot;We talk all the time about how to set the right tone,&quot; Gonzalez says. &quot;We do our running in the outfield, and we&apos;re talking about how we can help our teammates. Is somebody in a slump? What can we do for him? What can we do today to make this team better?&quot;</p>

      <p>The pair complement each other so well that when Gonzalez bought a new Ferrari after his contract extension, he chose red instead of his preferred black because Tulowitzki already owns a black one. &quot;Got to keep things balanced out,&quot; CarGo says. They work together as team leaders just as well. &quot;Obviously the Latin guys on this team and in the minors look up to Carlos,&quot; Tulowitzki says. &quot;Some of the other young guys come up to me and ask me questions, so that part of it works out real well.&quot;</p>

      <p>

        <pam:media>

          <dc:type>PHOTO</dc:type>

          <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_opy6-96398-raw.jpg"/>

          <pam:mediaTitle>PRECIOUS CARGO</pam:mediaTitle>

          <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          <pam:caption>After being traded twice in 11 months as a minor leaguer, Gonzalez showed last year why he was so sought after: He finished in the top four in the NL in every Triple Crown category.</pam:caption>

        </pam:media>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>The Rockies</span> have had several incarnations and strategies in their 19-year history. In their infancy they stocked the team with veteran sluggers like Dante Bichette, Vinny Castilla and Larry Walker, and ran up huge run totals in the thin Denver air. In the late 1990s and 2000s they began spending heavily on free-agent pitchers who had been successful elsewhere, such as Darryl Kile, Mike Hampton and Denny Neagle, all of whom found that pitching at high altitude is hazardous to the ERA. It was the disastrous results of spending $172 million on Hampton and Neagle in 2000 that prompted the current shift in philosophy. Hampton was ineffective until the Rockies traded him two years later. Neagle was not only a bust but also was cited for patronizing a prostitute in 2004, causing the Rockies to void the last year of his contract. (The Rockies reached a $16 million settlement with him in &apos;05, and eight months later he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 40 hours of community service.)</p>

      <p>The greater emphasis on personal character post-Neagle was at first seen as a religious-based movement—a 2006 <span class="emphasis">USA Today</span> article described the organization as following a &quot;Christian-based code of conduct&quot;—but O&apos;Dowd says that decisions about players have never been based on the nature of their faith. &quot;Do we like players with character? Yes. With strong moral values? Yes,&quot; he says. &quot;It is not required that a player be deeply religious to have those qualities.&quot;</p>

      <p>The approach is less about religion than about an intelligent design. The effort to pay a little more to lock up promising players before they can break the bank in free agency makes good financial sense, and the ability to retain budding stars is especially appreciated by Colorado fans, who have seen some of the market&apos;s most prominent athletes, like Carmelo Anthony of the Nuggets, the Broncos&apos; Jay Cutler and the Rockies&apos; Matt Holliday, leave town in the last three years.</p>

      <p>Tulowitzki is already filling some of the void left by those departures, and Gonzalez isn&apos;t far behind. With his smooth lefthanded swing and the way he glides effortlessly in the outfield, the gifted CarGo his slow start (a .228 average and one home run through Sunday) notwithstanding—is one of those players who make even their peers marvel. &quot;One of the best things about my job is I get to watch him for free,&quot; says Tulowitzki.</p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>Gonzalez developed</span> his graceful style on the diamonds of Maracaibo, Venezuela, where his older brother Euro Jr. introduced him to the sport by taking him to a Venezuelan Winter League game when Carlos was eight. &quot;I saw Bobby Abreu play, and I went home and started trying to make my stance like his,&quot; Gonzalez says, referring to the veteran outfielder now with the Angels. &quot;After that all I wanted to do was play baseball.&quot; He and Euro would take tree branches, carve them into makeshift bats and use rolled-up socks for balls until Carlos&apos;s talent earned him a spot on youth traveling teams.</p>

      <p>Signed at 16 by the Diamondbacks, he spent four years in the minors as a highly valued prospect until he was dealt in 2007 to Oakland with a package of players for pitcher Dan Haren. Despite showing flashes of his prodigious talent in Oakland, Gonzalez lasted only 11 months there before the A&apos;s traded him to Colorado with pitchers Huston Street and Greg Smith for Holliday.</p>

      <p>&quot;It feels like it took a long time,&quot; Gonzalez says, &quot;and then it came all at once.&quot; The Rockies sent him to Triple A Colorado Springs when they first acquired him, and after they brought him up, he scuffled along, batting around .200 for a long stretch. But once he got settled in Colorado, stardom did come in a rush. He hit .284 in 89 games in 2009 before tearing through the league last year with a .336 average, 34 homers, 117 RBIs and 26 stolen bases. The key to his breakout? &quot;Being comfortable,&quot; he says. &quot;Getting traded twice was hard; it kind of shakes you up. Once I knew I was going to be here for good, that they really wanted me here, everything fell into place.&quot;</p>

      <p>The one quality that Gonzalez hasn&apos;t yet developed is patience at the plate, where he shows off that sweet swing a little too often. &quot;When he got here, his strike zone was from the bill of his cap to the top of his spikes,&quot; says manager Jim Tracy. &quot;He still needs to be more selective, but he&apos;s getting better.&quot; According to Fangraphs.com, 37% of Gonzalez&apos;s swings last season were at pitches outside the strike zone. Only 14 hitters chased bad balls more often. So far this season he has reduced that number to 30.9%.</p>

      <p>&quot;I am trying to be patient and make the pitchers throw strikes, but at the same time I don&apos;t want to lose my aggressiveness,&quot; Gonzalez says. &quot;It takes time. You have to learn from your mistakes, and in time you figure it out.&quot; That&apos;s as true for a franchise as it is for a ballplayer. In fact, the Rockies&apos; trio of O&apos;s are the perfect symbols of their franchise—young, learning, on the cusp of something special. You get the feeling it won&apos;t be long now. They&apos;re just about to figure it out.</p>

      <div class="now-on-si">

        <p>

          <span class=“prism:lead-in”>Now on Twitter</span>

        </p>

        <p>Follow @SI_JonHeyman and @JPosnanski for their up-to-the-minute baseball thoughts.</p>

      </div>

      <div prism:class="pullQuote">

        <p>&quot;WE TALK ALL THE TIME ABOUT HOW TO SET THE RIGHT TONE,&quot; CARGO SAYS OF TULO. &quot;WHAT CAN WE DO TODAY TO MAKE THIS TEAM BETTER?&quot;</p>

      </div>

      <div prism:class="box">

        <h1>ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOW</h1>

        <p>

          <span class="emphasis">In their first nine seasons, the Rockies&apos; home ERA was a lofty 6.07. But since &apos;02, when they began using a humidor at Coors Field to make balls behave more like they do at sea level, <span class=“prism:lead-in”>Ubaldo Jimenez</span> and the team&apos;s other pitchers have had that mark in free fall.</span>

        </p>

        <p>5.47 2002</p>

        <p>5.07 2003</p>

        <p>6.27 2004</p>

        <p>5.18 2005</p>

        <p>4.72 2006</p>

        <p>4.34 2007</p>

        <p>4.83 2008</p>

        <p>4.41 2009</p>

        <p>4.25 2010</p>

        <p>3.91 2011</p>

        <p>

          <pam:media>

            <dc:type>PHOTO</dc:type>

            <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="110540_opy6-96359-raw.jpg"/>

            <pam:credit>ROBERT BECK</pam:credit>

          </pam:media>

        </p>

      </div>

      <pam:media>

        <dc:type>WEBPAGE</dc:type>

        <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2011/magazine/04/25/colorado.rockies.related.may2/index.html"/>

      </pam:media>

      <pam:media>

        <dc:type>WEBPAGE</dc:type>

        <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/2011/magazine/04/25/related.galleries.may2/index.html"/>

      </pam:media>

      <pam:media>

        <dc:type>WEBPAGE</dc:type>

        <pam:mediaReference pam:refid="http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/article/magazine/MAG1184832"/>

      </pam:media>

    </body>

  </pam:article>

</pam:message>


Appendix B                Sample PSV Tagging

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         <dc:title> Oh, The Places They&apos;ll Go</dc:title>

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        <prism:genre>feature</prism:genre>

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        <dc:creator prism:role="writer">Phil Taylor</dc:creator>

        <prism:wordcount>2175</prism:wordcount>

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          <prism:volume>114</prism:volume>

          <prism:number>18</prism:number>

          <prism:issn>0038-822X</prism:issn>

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          <prism:startingPage>44</prism:startingPage>

          <prism:section>BASEBALL</prism:section>

          <prism:subsection1>THE ROCKIES</prism:subsection1>

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      <article>

      <p class="prism:deck">

        <span class="emphasis">Why are fans so aglow in Colorado? Because Tulo, CarGo and Ubaldo—and a park that no longer plays like the game&apos;s highest plateau”are making the

Rockies&apos; title hopes grow</span>

      </p>

      <p>

        <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_opy6-95787-rawCOMBO.jpg” alt=”Peak Performers”/>

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>PEAK PERFORMERS</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>Gonzalez, Tulowitzki and Jimenez are all entering their primes and locked up through at least 2014, giving the Rockies the game&apos;s best young core.</figcaption>

        </figure>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>It seemed</span> like a good idea to Troy Tulowitzki when he allowed fans to choose his walk-up music—the song played over the Coors Field public-address system as he approaches the batter&apos;s box”in an online poll before the season. But after the Rockies&apos; prolific shortstop followed his standout 2010 (.315 average, 27 home runs and a fifth-place finish in the National League MVP voting) by going hitless in his first eight at bats of this year, he quickly dumped the people&apos;s choice, Katy Perry&apos;s <span class="emphasis">Firework,</span> for something more in his comfort zone”<span class="emphasis">Baby,</span> by Justin Bieber.</p>

      <p>It might be a stretch to say that Tulo, as he&apos;s widely known, has Bieber fever, but he is partial to the teen pop star&apos;s music and doesn&apos;t care who knows it. He and teammate Jason Giambi took in a Bieber concert during spring training, and Tulo is willing to put up with the inevitable ribbing from the rest of the Rockies, who keep his locker at Coors stocked with Bieber-obilia. Last week his space was adorned with a glittery backpack and a T-shirt bearing the singer&apos;s likeness that most middle school girls would surely be proud to own. &quot;Lots of comedians in this clubhouse,&quot; Tulowitzki says. &quot;I just go with the flow.&quot;</p>

      <p>

        <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_opy6-98460-raw.jpg” alt=”Double Threat”/>

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>DOUBLE THREAD</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>Tulowitzki and Gonzalez have a thriving partnership in the lineup, in the clubhouse and in the NL MVP balloting, where both finished in the top five last year.</figcaption>

        </figure>

      </p>

      <p>Even though they might not want to trade iPods with Tulowitzki, 26, none of the Rockies would dream of suggesting he change his tune. He went on one of his familiar Tulo tears shortly after the sound track switch, almost single-handedly demolishing the Mets with home runs in four straight games, and through Sunday he was hitting .333 with seven homers, tying him with the Cardinals&apos; Albert Pujols and Ryan Braun of the Brewers for the National League home run lead. Besides, although his new signature song isn&apos;t exactly a lyrical masterpiece, it does have one line—in fact, it&apos;s repeated so much it seems like the only line—that&apos;s especially appropriate for the Rockies: <span class="emphasis">Baby, baby, baby, oh.</span></p>

      <p>

        <figure class=”prism:video”>

          <embed width="320" height="240" src=”http://mlb.com/video/play.jsp?content_id=2586034”/>

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>A HUMOROUS LOOK AT THE COORS HUMIDOR</p>

        </figure>

      </p>

      <p>Put the emphasis on the <span class="emphasis">oh.</span> That&apos;s a joyful sound in Colorado these days, thanks not just to Tulo, but to CarGo and Ubaldo. CarGo is otherwise known as leftfielder Carlos Gonzalez, 25, last year&apos;s NL batting champ. The linchpin of the Rockies&apos; staff is Ubaldo Jimenez, 27, who finished third in the NL Cy Young Award voting in 2010. Due mostly to a thumb injury that forced him to miss two starts, Jimenez has started slowly, but the Rockies haven&apos;t. Tulowitzki&apos;s performance, both with bat and glove, and solid pitching from starters Jhoulys Chacin and Jorge De La Rosa, as well as the entire bullpen, helped put Colorado atop the NL West with a 14—7 record through Sunday. The Rockies appear set to contend not just this year but for the foreseeable future, and it&apos;s largely, as the Biebs might say, because of their O&apos;s, baby.</p>

      <p>It&apos;s also because of a long-term philosophy that ensures the O trio won&apos;t be leaving anytime soon. Back in the &apos;90s, when the Rockies were playing something closer to pinball than baseball because of the way the ball carried in the mile-high altitude of their home park, finding one of baseball&apos;s most sensible organizational blueprints in Colorado would have seemed as likely as discovering a gourmet meal in an Easy-Bake Oven. But just as the introduction of a humidor at Coors in 2002—baseballs stored in it don&apos;t carry like golf balls—has normalized the game in Denver, the Rockies have devised a smart, down-to-earth approach.</p>

      <p>

      <figure class=”prism:slideshow>

        <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>SLIDESHOW: SEE THE VISITING PITCHERS WHO PERFORM BEST AT COORS FIELD</p>

        <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss.jpg”/>

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>TIM LINCECUM</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>TIM LINCECUM In nine career starts at Coors Field, the Freak has a 3.49 ERA, the best among all hurlers who have thrown at least 40 innings there and never played for the Rockies.</figcaption>

        </figure>

       <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss2.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>TOM GLAVINE</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>The Braves lefty made 13 starts at Coors (including eight in the prehumidor days) and had a 3.68 ERA there, second best among visitors.</figcaption>

        </figure>

       <figure class=”photo”>

          <img src=”110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss3.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>DAN HAREN</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>GARRETT W. ELLWOOD/GETTY IMAGES</p>

          <figcaption>The righthander (now with the Angels) has made seven starts at Coors and gone 4”2 with a 3.80 ERA there, third best among visiting pitchers.</figcaption>

        </figure>

       <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss4.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>BRETT MYERS</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>DUSTIN BRADFORD/ICON SMI</p>

          <figcaption>The righty (now with the Astros) has a career ERA of 4.18”but that figure drops to 3.92 (with a 5—0 record) in his six starts at Coors.</figcaption>

        </figure>

       <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_ROCKIES_iPad_ss5.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>BRAD PENNY</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>In 11 starts at Coors, the righty (now with the Tigers) is 6”1 with a 3.92 ERA, tying him with Myers for the fourth-best mark there among visitors.</figcaption>

        </figure>

      </figure>

      </p>

      <p>Having been burned in the past by throwing big bucks at older free agents who failed miserably on the field and sometimes embarrassed the franchise away from it, Colorado&apos;s front office has become more selective about making major financial commitments. They focus on retaining players who appear to be entering their prime rather than signing older, more established stars, and before the Rockies offer a long-term deal, they have to be satisfied not just with a player&apos;s skills but also with the content of his character. &quot;We found that talent that isn&apos;t also accompanied by other qualities, such as humility, accountability and integrity, really didn&apos;t work for us,&quot; says general manager Dan O&apos;Dowd. &quot;We&apos;ve tried to build this team not just with a certain kind of player but a certain quality of person.&quot;</p>

      <p>Gonzalez, Jimenez and Tulowitzki are perfect templates for the Rockies&apos; visionary”young, gifted, industrious and squeaky-clean. That&apos;s why Colorado locked up CarGo with a seven-year, $80 million contract extension in January, two months after it extended Tulowitzki&apos;s contract to make it a 10-year deal worth $157.75 million. They got in on the ground floor with Jimenez as well, signing him to a four-year deal in 2009 (with team options for &apos;13 and &apos;14) that could earn him $22.75 million and keep him in Denver two years after he would have been eligible for free agency.</p>

      <p>CarGo and Tulo in particular have formed a thriving partnership, not just in the middle of the order, where they bat third and fourth, but in the clubhouse. &quot;We talk all the time about how to set the right tone,&quot; Gonzalez says. &quot;We do our running in the outfield, and we&apos;re talking about how we can help our teammates. Is somebody in a slump? What can we do for him? What can we do today to make this team better?&quot;</p>

      <p>The pair complement each other so well that when Gonzalez bought a new Ferrari after his contract extension, he chose red instead of his preferred black because Tulowitzki already owns a black one. &quot;Got to keep things balanced out,&quot; CarGo says. They work together as team leaders just as well. &quot;Obviously the Latin guys on this team and in the minors look up to Carlos,&quot; Tulowitzki says. &quot;Some of the other young guys come up to me and ask me questions, so that part of it works out real well.&quot;</p>

      <p>

       <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_opy6-96398-raw.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:mediaTitle”>PRECIOUS CARGO</p>

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

          <figcaption>After being traded twice in 11 months as a minor leaguer, Gonzalez showed last year why he was so sought after: He finished in the top four in the NL in every Triple Crown category.</figcaption>

        </figure>

      </p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>The Rockies</span> have had several incarnations and strategies in their 19-year history. In their infancy they stocked the team with veteran sluggers like Dante Bichette, Vinny Castilla and Larry Walker, and ran up huge run totals in the thin Denver air. In the late 1990s and 2000s they began spending heavily on free-agent pitchers who had been successful elsewhere, such as Darryl Kile, Mike Hampton and Denny Neagle, all of whom found that pitching at high altitude is hazardous to the ERA. It was the disastrous results of spending $172 million on Hampton and Neagle in 2000 that prompted the current shift in philosophy. Hampton was ineffective until the Rockies traded him two years later. Neagle was not only a bust but also was cited for patronizing a prostitute in 2004, causing the Rockies to void the last year of his contract. (The Rockies reached a $16 million settlement with him in &apos;05, and eight months later he pleaded guilty and was sentenced to 40 hours of community service.)</p>

      <p>The greater emphasis on personal character post-Neagle was at first seen as a religious-based movement—a 2006 <span class="emphasis">USA Today</span> article described the organization as following a &quot;Christian-based code of conduct&quot;—but O&apos;Dowd says that decisions about players have never been based on the nature of their faith. &quot;Do we like players with character? Yes. With strong moral values? Yes,&quot; he says. &quot;It is not required that a player be deeply religious to have those qualities.&quot;</p>

      <p>The approach is less about religion than about an intelligent design. The effort to pay a little more to lock up promising players before they can break the bank in free agency makes good financial sense, and the ability to retain budding stars is especially appreciated by Colorado fans, who have seen some of the market&apos;s most prominent athletes, like Carmelo Anthony of the Nuggets, the Broncos&apos; Jay Cutler and the Rockies&apos; Matt Holliday, leave town in the last three years.</p>

      <p>Tulowitzki is already filling some of the void left by those departures, and Gonzalez isn&apos;t far behind. With his smooth lefthanded swing and the way he glides effortlessly in the outfield, the gifted CarGo—his slow start (a .228 average and one home run through Sunday) notwithstanding—is one of those players who make even their peers marvel. &quot;One of the best things about my job is I get to watch him for free,&quot; says Tulowitzki.</p>

      <p><span class=“prism:lead-in”>Gonzalez developed</span> his graceful style on the diamonds of Maracaibo, Venezuela, where his older brother Euro Jr. introduced him to the sport by taking him to a Venezuelan Winter League game when Carlos was eight. &quot;I saw Bobby Abreu play, and I went home and started trying to make my stance like his,&quot; Gonzalez says, referring to the veteran outfielder now with the Angels. &quot;After that all I wanted to do was play baseball.&quot; He and Euro would take tree branches, carve them into makeshift bats and use rolled-up socks for balls until Carlos&apos;s talent earned him a spot on youth traveling teams.</p>

      <p>Signed at 16 by the Diamondbacks, he spent four years in the minors as a highly valued prospect until he was dealt in 2007 to Oakland with a package of players for pitcher Dan Haren. Despite showing flashes of his prodigious talent in Oakland, Gonzalez lasted only 11 months there before the A&apos;s traded him to Colorado with pitchers Huston Street and Greg Smith for Holliday.</p>

      <p>&quot;It feels like it took a long time,&quot; Gonzalez says, &quot;and then it came all at once.&quot; The Rockies sent him to Triple A Colorado Springs when they first acquired him, and after they brought him up, he scuffled along, batting around .200 for a long stretch. But once he got settled in Colorado, stardom did come in a rush. He hit .284 in 89 games in 2009 before tearing through the league last year with a .336 average, 34 homers, 117 RBIs and 26 stolen bases. The key to his breakout? &quot;Being comfortable,&quot; he says. &quot;Getting traded twice was hard; it kind of shakes you up. Once I knew I was going to be here for good, that they really wanted me here, everything fell into place.&quot;</p>

      <p>The one quality that Gonzalez hasn&apos;t yet developed is patience at the plate, where he shows off that sweet swing a little too often. &quot;When he got here, his strike zone was from the bill of his cap to the top of his spikes,&quot; says manager Jim Tracy. &quot;He still needs to be more selective, but he&apos;s getting better.&quot; According to Fangraphs.com, 37% of Gonzalez&apos;s swings last season were at pitches outside the strike zone. Only 14 hitters chased bad balls more often. So far this season he has reduced that number to 30.9%.</p>

      <p>&quot;I am trying to be patient and make the pitchers throw strikes, but at the same time I don&apos;t want to lose my aggressiveness,&quot; Gonzalez says. &quot;It takes time. You have to learn from your mistakes, and in time you figure it out.&quot; That&apos;s as true for a franchise as it is for a ballplayer. In fact, the Rockies&apos; trio of O&apos;s are the perfect symbols of their franchise—young, learning, on the cusp of something special. You get the feeling it won&apos;t be long now. They&apos;re just about to figure it out.</p>

      <div class="now-on-si">

        <p>

          <span class=“prism:lead-in”>Now on Twitter</span>

        </p>

        <p>Follow <span class=”pim:link”>@SI_JonHeyman</span> and <span class=”pim:link”>@Jposnanski</span> for their up-to-the-minute baseball thoughts.</p>

      </div>

      <aside class="prism:pullQuote">

        <p>&quot;WE TALK ALL THE TIME ABOUT HOW TO SET THE RIGHT TONE,&quot; CARGO SAYS OF TULO. &quot;WHAT CAN WE DO TODAY TO MAKE THIS TEAM BETTER?&quot;</p>

      </aside>

      <aside class="prism:box">

        <h1>ROCKY MOUNTAIN LOW</h1>

        <p><span class="emphasis">In their first nine seasons, the Rockies&apos; home ERA was a lofty 6.07. But since &apos;02, when they began using a humidor at Coors Field to make balls behave more like they do at sea level, <span class="pim:person">Ubaldo Jimenez</span> and the team&apos;s other pitchers have had that mark in free fall.</span>

        </p>

        <p>5.47 2002</p>

        <p>5.07 2003</p>

        <p>6.27 2004</p>

        <p>5.18 2005</p>

        <p>4.72 2006</p>

        <p>4.34 2007</p>

        <p>4.83 2008</p>

        <p>4.41 2009</p>

        <p>4.25 2010</p>

        <p>3.91 2011</p>

        <p>

         <figure class=”prism:photo”>

          <img src=”110540_opy6-96359-raw.jpg” />

          <p class=”prism:credit”>ROBERT BECK</p>

        </figure>

        </p>

      </aside>

    <div class="relatedWebContent">

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