prism_specification

 

 

 

 

PRISM:

Publishing Requirements for Industry Standard Metadata

 

Version 3.0

 

 

The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary
Markup Specification

 

 

 

October 4, 2012

 

 

 

idealliancelogo_cymk


Copyright and Legal Notices

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Table of Contents

1     Status. 1

1.1         Document Status. 1

1.2         Document Location.. 1

1.3         Version History. 1

2     PRISM Documentation Structure. 3

2.1         Normative and Non-normative Sections. 3

2.1.1      Requirement Wording Note. 3

2.2         The PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package. 3

2.2.1      General Documents. 3

2.2.2      PRISM Metadata Specifications. 4

2.2.3      PRISM Aggregator Message Markup Specification.. 4

2.2.4      PRISM Inline Markup Specification.. 5

2.2.5      PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specifications. 5

2.2.6      Additional PRISM Documentation.. 5

2.2.7      Access to PRISM Documentation.. 6

2.2.8      Access to PAM Schemas. 6

2.2.9      PRISM Source Vocabulary Documentation Set. 6

2.3         PSV Content Management Schema. 7

2.4         Other PSV Schemas. 7

3     Introduction. 9

3.1         Purpose and Scope. 9

3.2         New in this Version.. 9

4     PRISM XML/RDF Element and Attribute Definitions. 11

4.1         PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Namespace. 11

4.2         PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Element and Attribute Models. 11

4.2.1      pcv:broaderTerm... 11

4.2.2      pcv:code. 12

4.2.3      pcv:definition.. 13

4.2.4      pcv:Descriptor. 14

4.2.5      pcv:label 16

4.2.6      pcv:narrowerTerm... 17

4.2.7      pcv:relatedTerm... 18

4.2.8      pcv:synonym... 19

4.2.9      pcv:vocabulary. 21

5     Sample Controlled Vocabulary Definition. 23


1      Status

1.1      Document Status

The status of this document is:

ü

Draft

11/04/2011

ü

Released for Public Comment

12/15/2011

ü

Final Draft

06/12/2012

ü

Final Spec

10/04/2012

1.2      Document Location

The location of this document is:

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.pdf

or

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.htm

1.3      Version History

Version Number

Release Date

Editor

Description

1.2

1/26/05

McConnell

Converted from unmodularized PRISM spec v 1.2

1.3

10/01/05

Kennedy

Update to resolve industry comments

2.0

02/19/08

Kennedy

Add for cross platform support

2.1 Final

05/15/09

Kennedy

Final Spec with Industry Comments Resolved

3.0

12/15/2011

Kennedy

Public Draft of PRISM 3.0

3.0

06/12/02012

Kennedy

Final Draft Spec with comments resolved

3.0

10/04/02012

Kennedy

Final Spec with comments resolved


2      PRISM Documentation Structure

PRISM is described in a set of formal, modularized documents that, taken together, represent “the PRISM Specification.” Together these documents comprise the PRISM Documentation Package.

2.1      Normative and Non-normative Sections

Documents in the PRISM Documentation Package may contain both normative and non-normative material; normative material describes element names, attributes, formats, and the contents of elements that is required in order for content or systems to comply with the PRISM Specification. Non-normative material explains, expands on, or clarifies the normative material, but it does not represent requirements for compliance. Normative material in the PRISM Documentation Package is explicitly identified as such; any material not identified as normative can be assumed to be non-normative.

2.1.1    Requirement Wording Note

The key words "MUST," "MUST NOT," "REQUIRED," "SHALL," "SHALL NOT," "SHOULD," "SHOULD NOT," "RECOMMENDED," "MAY," and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC-2119]. The PRISM Specification also uses the normative term, “STRONGLY ENCOURAGES,” which should be understood as a requirement equivalent to “MUST” in all but the most extraordinary circumstances.

Capitalization is significant; lower-case uses of the key words are intended to be interpreted in their normal, informal, English language way.

2.2      The PRISM 3.0 Documentation Package

The PRISM Documentation Package consists of:

2.2.1    General Documents

This is a set of general or overview documents that apply to PRISM.

Document

Description

PRISM Introduction [PRISMINT]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_introduction_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_introduction_3.0.htm

Overview, background, purpose and scope of PRISM; examples; contains no normative material.

PRISM Compliance [PRISMCOMP]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_compliance_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_compliance_3.0.htm

Describes three profiles of PRISM compliance for content and systems; includes normative material.

2.2.2    PRISM Metadata Specifications

This is the set of documents that outline the prism metadata fields and values by PRISM metadata category.  PRISM has modularized its metadata specification by namepace so users may pick those modules that meet their unique business requirements without having to implement the entire PRISM specification.

Document

Description

The PRISM Basic Metadata Specification [PRISMBMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Basic_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Basic_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the basic metadata elements contained in the PRISM namespace to describe article content; includes normative material.

PRISM Advertising Metadata Specification [PRISMADMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Advertising_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Advertising_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes advertising metadata elements including those drawn from AdsML, GWG and Ad-ID; includes normative material.

The PRISM Subset of Dublin Core Metadata Specification [PRISMDCMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Dublin_Core_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Dublin_Core_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements from the Dublin Core namespace that are included in PRISM; includes normative material.

The PRISM Image Metadata Specification [PRISMIMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Image_Metadata_Specification_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Image_Metadata_Specification_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Metadata for Images Namespace and other related image namespaces, includes normative material.

The PRISM Recipe Metadata Specification [PRISMRMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Recipe_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Recipe_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Recipe Metadata Namespace, includes normative material

The PRISM Usage Rights Metadata Specification [PRISMURMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Usage_Rights_Metadata_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Usage_Rights_Metadata_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata elements contained in the PRISM Usage Rights Namespace; includes normative material. This namespace will supersede elements in both the prism: and prl: namespaces in version 3.0 of the specification.

2.2.3    PRISM Aggregator Message Markup Specification

This module documents the PRISM Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message.  At the time of the publication of the Introduction to PRISM, the PAM Message remains at version 2.1.   This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM PAM Markup Specification [PRISMPAMMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PAM_Markup_2.1.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PAM_Markup_2.1.htm

Describes the XML elements and attributes used to encode the PRISM Aggregator Message from both the pam: and pim: namespaces; includes normative material.

2.2.4    PRISM Inline Markup Specification

This module documents the PRISM Inline Markup Elements and Attributes for use with the PRISM Aggregator Message.  This set of documents includes:

Document

Description

The PRISM Inline Markup Specification [PRISMIMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PIM_Markup_Specification 3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/2.1/
PRISM_PIM_Markup_Specification 3.0.htm

Describes the XML elements used to encode the inline markup for the PRISM Aggregator Message. Includes normative material.

2.2.5    PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Specifications

These modules are new with PRISM 3.0.  All controlled vocabularies and their terms are documented in this publication set. 

Document

Description

The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Markup Specification [PRISMCVMS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_Controlled_Vocabulary_Markup_3.0.htm

Describes the metadata fields in the PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Namespace that can be used to describe a controlled vocabulary.   Actual PRISM controlled vocabularies are now placed in the PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS]
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_CV_Spec_3.0.pdf

or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/3.0/
PRISM_CV_Spec_3.0.htm

The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies are now documented in this document.

2.2.6    Additional PRISM Documentation

The Guide to the PRISM Aggregator Message [PAMGUIDE] documents the PRISM Aggregator Message (PAM), an XML-based application of PRISM.

The PRISM Cookbook [PRISMCB] documents implementation strategies for PRISM Profile 1 applications.

The Guide to PRISM Usage Rights [RIGHTSGUIDE] documents an XML-based PRISM application for the expression of PRISM Usage Rights.  The Guide is accompanied by an XSD that can be used as the basis for developing a digital rights management system based on PRISM Usage Rights.

The Guide to PRISM Metadata for Images [IMAGEGUIDE] documents an XML-based PRISM Profile 1 application for the expression of the structure and use of PRISM Metadata for Images and can be used as the basis for developing an image management system based on PRISM Metadata for Images and for implementing PMI in XML.

The Guide to PRISM Recipe Metadata and XML Encoding [RECIPEGUIDE] documents the XML-based PRISM Profiles for the encoding of recipes for:

·        Establish a Recipe Database

·        Establish a tagging scheme to code a wide variety of recipes in XML

·        Tag recipes within the PAM message

·        Tag recipes in nextPub XML Content Source

2.2.7    Access to PRISM Documentation

The PRISM documentation package, the PAM guide (see above), the PAM DTD, the PAM XSD and a range of other information concerning PRISM are all publicly and freely available on the PRISM website, www.prismstandard.org.

2.2.8    Access to PAM Schemas

Standard URLs have been established to access PRISM/PAM XSDs and DTDs as well as the XSD for the new PRISM Usage Rights Model.

To access PAM XSDs and DTDs:

http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/pam/2.1/
http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/pam/2.1/pam.xsd
http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/pam/2.1/pam-dc.xsd
http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/pam/2.1/pam-prism.xsd

To access PRISM Rights Model XSD

http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/rights/3.0/rightsmodel.xsd

To access PRISM Recipe Tagging and Recipe Database XSD

http://www.prismstandard.org/schemas/recipe/3.0/recipemodel.xsd

2.2.9    nextPub PRISM Source Vocabulary Documentation Set

nextPub has developed a series of specifications collectively known as the PRISM Source Vocabulary.  The use case for PSV is to encode semantically rich content for transformation and delivery to any platform. This Specification is made up of a modular documentation package that builds on PRISM 3.0 and HTML5.  Over time new modules may be added to the documentation package.  The documentation package for the nextPub PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Version 1.0 consists of:

Document

Description

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification Overview [PSVSO]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_overview.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_overview.htm

The Introduction to the PRISM Source Vocabulary provides an introduction and a non-technical overview of the PRISM Source Vocabulary.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification [PSVS]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV.htm

The PRISM Source Vocabulary Specification defines semantically rich for source metadata and content markup that can be transformed and served to a wide variety of output devices including eReaders, mobile tablet devices, smart phones and print.

PRISM Source Vocabulary Markup Specification [PSVMS]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_markkup.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PSV_markup.htm

The PSV Markup Specification documents the XML tags in the PSV namespace that are used to encode XML Source Content.

PAM to PSV_Guide [PAMPSVGUIDE]

http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PAM_PSV.pdf
or
http://www.prismstandard.org/specifications/psv/1.0/PAM_PSV.htm

This Guide documents mappings from PAM XML to PSV XML.  It is normative only.

2.3      PSV Content Management Schema

In order to assist implementers develop a PSV-based federated content management solution, the nextPub Working Group is providing an XML Schema (XSD) that can serve as the basis for the design of a PSV content repository. 

Note: The PSV CM schema is not designed for tagging content.  It is provided simply to serve as a basis for the design of a content repository.  Metadata building blocks from this schema can be combined with HTML5 by publishers who wish to develop a hybrid PSV metadata and content tagging schema.

2.4      Other PSV Schemas

Because PSV is a flexible framework, it supports many different use case scenarios.  A different schema, using the PSV metadata fields and content encoding can be developed for each different use case.  In order to assist PSV implementers, the nextPub Working Group is planning to provide a number of XML Schemas (XSDs) to support common use cases including tagging an article and transmitting articles to content aggregators.  These PSV sample schemas will be available from the nextPub website (http://www.nextpub.org) and documented in the nextPub PSV Implementation Guide that will be published following the publication of this specification.


3      Introduction

3.1      Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this document is to describe the XML markup elements that the PRISM Working Group has defined to encode a PRISM Controlled Vocabulary.

All element definitions appear in a uniform format. Each element definition begins with two fields – the Name and the Identifier of the element. The Name is a human-readable string that can be translated into different languages. Also, note that PRISM does NOT require that users be presented with the same labels. The Identifier is a protocol element. It is an XML element type and MUST be given as shown, modulo the normal allowance for variations in the namespace prefix used.

3.2      New in this Version

See PRISM Introduction 3.0 [PRISMINT] for all changes.

Changes in this document include:

·        The tagging for defining a PRISM Controlled Vocabulary has been separated from the controlled vocabularies themselves.  This document, The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Markup Specification [PRISMCVMS] defines the markup to define a PRISM controlled vocabulary.

·        The documentation for the Version 3.0 PRISM Controlled Vocabularies is now held in a separate document. The PRISM Controlled Vocabularies Specification [PRISMCVS].



4      PRISM XML/RDF Element and Attribute Definitions

4.1      PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Namespace

The PRISM Controlled Vocabulary provides a mechanism for describing and conveying all or a portion of a controlled vocabulary or an authority file. This may be used to define entire new taxonomies, or it may be used to optimize the final speed of the system by caching useful information from externally-held vocabularies.

The recommended PRISM namespace for PRISM Controlled Vocabulary is:
xmlns:pcv=”http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/pcv/3.0/”

4.2      PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Element and Attribute Models

Two PRISM profiles are documented in this section. PRISM Profile #1 (XML) is documented. PRISM Profile #2 (RDF/XML) is also documented in this section. In combining XML with RDF, there is far greater flexibility in tagging than we are used to when we define XML elements and attributes with an XML DTD. The remainder of this section contains the most likely element/attribute models for PRISM Profile #2. Other profile 2 models are possible based on the interaction between XML and RDF.

PRISM Profile #3 (XMP) does not apply to the controlled vocabulary namespace. Expression of controlled vocabularies in XMP is not directly implementable.

Note: PRISM element types are specified in camel case, for example prism:broaderTerm.  The exception is that when elements denote Classes in the sense of the RDF Schema [W3C-RDFS], they must begin with an uppercase letter. The only PRISM element to do so is pcv:Descriptor, because it denotes an RDF Class, it does not require rdf:parseType to be indicated.

4.2.1    pcv:broaderTerm

Name

Broader Term

Identifier

pcv:broaderTerm

Definition

Links to a broader (more general) taxon in the vocabulary. For example, from a taxon for 'dog' to one for 'mammal'.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

This element is used to show relationships between entries (aka terms or taxons) in a controlled vocabulary. That is why they are defined using rdf:resource. Identifiers must be declared for the terms being related and for those identifiers when referring to the terms.

Implementers should note that more than one pcv:broaderTerm link IS ALLOWED. This means that polyhierarchic structures are possible. However, sets of pcv:broaderTerms that generate infinite cycles are forbidden. In other words, an ancestor cannot be a descendent.

Included in PAM?

No

Included in PSV?

No

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

URI Resource (no element content)

Attributes

Resource Reference.(rdf:resource)

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Occurrence

May occur 0 or many times

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.2    pcv:code

Name

Code

Identifier

pcv:code

Definition

Provides a unique linguistically neutral machine-readable identifier for the term within the vocabulary.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or 1 time per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

This is usually an alphanumeric code, or a purely numeric one. However, markup is still allowed because of BiDi and Ruby considerations.

Included in PAM?

No

Included in PSV?

No

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Plain Literal

Attributes

xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.3    pcv:definition

Name

Definition

Identifier

pcv:definition

Definition

Provides a human-readable definition for the item in the vocabulary.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or 1 time per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

Multiple definitions for the same term can be given, but PRISM recommended practice is only to do so when it has different values of the xml:lang attribute.

For profile 1, just repeat the pcv:definition element multiple times.

Definitions are a place where embedded markup is very likely - paragraph breaks being especially common. For such embedded markup, recommended practice is to use elements from the XHTML namespace. The rdf:parseType attribute MUST be given the value of ‘Literal’ when embedded markup is used.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Plain Literal

Attributes

xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Example

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Astronomy"/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.4    pcv:Descriptor

Name

Descriptor

Identifier

pcv:Descriptor

Definition

Represents an entry, formally called a taxon, in a controlled vocabulary. pcv:Descriptor is the container for all the PCV elements used to define or describe such an entry.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or 1 time per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

There are two main uses of pcv:Descriptor, corresponding to the two different attributes. When the rdf:ID attribute is used, the pcv:Descriptor provides the definition of the taxon. The URI reference used in the rdf:ID attribute should be used by any other elements wishing to refer to the taxon.

When the rdf:about attribute is used, pcv:Descriptor is a description of a taxon that is defined elsewhere. That external definition does NOT have to be made using the PCV elements.

Unlike all other PRISM metadata fields, the field name for “Descriptor” must be capitalized because it maps to the RDF “Descriptor” typedNode.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Blank Node (made up of other elements from the pcv: namespace)

Attributes

rdf:ID

Example:

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Astronomy"/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Model #2

 

Element Content

Blank Node (made up of other elements from the pcv: namespace)

Attributes

rdf:about

Example

  <pcv:Descriptor rdf:about=”http://loc.gov/LC/QA-76”>

    <pcv:vocabulary>Library of Congress Classification</pcv:vocabulary>

    <pcv:code>QA-p76</pcv:code>

    <pcv:label>Mathematical software</pcv:label>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.5    pcv:label

Name

Label

Identifier

pcv:label

Definition

Provides a human-readable label for a term in the vocabulary.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

Multiple labels can be provided, but typically this will be done when they bear different xml:lang attributes. Most vocabularies will have only one preferred term for a concept. For example, “Mad Cow Disease” is more properly referred to as “Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.” The <pcv:label element SHALL be used for any preferred labels for a concept, whether there are multiple terms in a single language or not. For all alternate labels, use the <pcv:synonym element.

For Profile #1, just repeat the pcv:label element multiple times. For Profile#2, if there is more than one label with different values for xml:lang, PRISM recommends listing the multiple locations inside one pcv:label element using the RDF container rdf:Seq, rdf:Bag, or rdf:Alt to be XMP compatible.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term.  Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Plain Literal

Attributes

xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Model #2

 

Element Content

XML Literal

Attributes

rdf:parseType=”Literal”
xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Example

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term.  Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.6    pcv:narrowerTerm

Name

Narrower Term

Identifier

pcv:narrowerTerm

Definition

Links to a narrower (more specific) concept in the vocabulary. For example, from 'dog' to 'Dalmatian'.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times per controlled vocabulary term definition

Comment

This element is used to show relationships between entries (aka terms or taxons) in a controlled vocabulary. That is why they are defined using rdf:resource. Identifiers must be declared for the terms being related and for those identifiers when referring to the terms.

Multiple pcv:narrowerTerm links are allowed. pcv:narrowerTerm and pcv:broaderTerm are the inverse of each other. Cycles of pcv:narrowerTerms are forbidden.

For Profile #1, just repeat the pcv:narrowerTerm element multiple times. For Profile #2, if there is more than one narrowerTerm with different values, PRISM recommends listing the multiple terms inside one pcv:narrowerTerm element using the RDF container rdf:Seq, rdf:Bag, or rdf:Alt to be XMP compatible.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term.  Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

URI Resource (no element content)

Attributes

Resource Reference.(rdf:resource)

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Example

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term.  Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.7    pcv:relatedTerm

Name

Related Term

Identifier

pcv:relatedTerm

Definition

Links to a related term in the vocabulary, where the nature of the relation is not specified.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times

Comment

Where possible, PRISM recommends this element not be used. Elements that specify the relation more precisely are preferred. There is, however, difficulty in precisely identifying the exact nature of the relationship between obviously related words, such as farm and farmer. Therefore, pcv:relatedTerm should be used infrequently.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attributes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID=”Astrophysics”>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:relatedTerm>Plasma Physics</pcv:relatedTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

URI Resource (no element content)

Attributes

Resource Reference.(rdf:resource)

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Example

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:about="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<pcv:relatedTerm>Plasma Physics</pcv:relatedTerm>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.8    pcv:synonym

Name

Synonym

Identifier

pcv:synonym

Definition

Alternate labels (synonyms) for the same vocabulary term. While semantically equivalent, the synonyms are not the preferred terms for the concept. See pcv:label for more on preferred vs. alternate terms. The synonyms are used to increase the likelihood of matching to the proper controlled vocabulary term.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times

Comment

For Profile #1, just repeat the pcv:synonym element multiple times. For Profile #2, if there is more than one synonym with different values, PRISM recommends listing the multiple terms inside one pcv:synonym element using the RDF container rdf:Seq, rdf:Bag, or rdf:Alt to be XMP compatible.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attribtes

None

Example

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

<pcv:Descriptor>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label>

<pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Physics</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:broaderTerm>Astronomy</pcv:broaderTerm>

<pcv:narrowerTerm>Cosmology</pcv:narrowerTerm>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Plain Literal

Attributes

xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Example

 

This is the model for the “Astrophysics” term in a controlled vocabulary. Note that there are several labels in different languages (the default happens to be English) and more than one broader term. Only one linguistically neutral unique code is allowed.

 

Model #1

<pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="Astrophysics">

<rdf:alt>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“x-default“>Astrophysics</pcv:label></li>

<li><pcv:label xml:lang=“FR“>Astrophysique</pcv:label><li>

</rdf:alt>

<rdf:bag>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource="termlist.xml#Physics"/></li>

<li><pcv:broaderTerm rdf:resource=”termlist.xml#Astronomy”/></li>

</rdf:bag>

<pcv:narrowerTerm rdf:resource="#Cosmology"/>

<pcv:synonym>celestial mechanics</pcv:synonym>

<pcv:definition>Includes cosmology; space plasmas; and interstellar and interplanetary gases and dust.</pcv:definition>

<pcv:code>84</pcv:code>

</pcv:Descriptor>

4.2.9    pcv:vocabulary

Name

Vocabulary

Identifier

pcv:vocabulary

Definition

Provides a human-readable string identifying the vocabulary from which the term is derived.

Occurrence

Occurs 0 or more times

Comment

The pcv:vocabulary element is not expected to be used when defining the taxons in a vocabulary. It is expected to be used when providing small, in-line, descriptions of those taxons so that a reader may be able to track down a complete copy if they do not already own one. In the example below the taxon is defined elsewhere (rdf:about is a link to the definition). Here pcv:vocabulary provides a readable definition of what is defined in that taxon.

Included in PAM?

No

 

Included in PSV?

No

 

Profile #1 (XML)

 

Element Content

String

Attribtes

None

Example

<pcv:vocabulary>Library of Congress Classification</pcv:vocabulary>

Profile #2 (RDF)

 

Model #1

 

Element Content

Plain Literal

Attributes

xml:lang (optional) designed for identifying the human language used

Occurs In

pcv:Descriptor

Example

  <pcv:Descriptor rdf:about=”http://loc.gov/LC/QA-76”>

    <pcv:vocabulary>Library of Congress Classification</pcv:vocabulary>

    <pcv:code>QA-p76</pcv:code>

    <pcv:label>Mathematical software</pcv:label>

  </pcv:Descriptor>


5      Sample Controlled Vocabulary Definition

The following is an example of how to define a controlled vocabulary using the PRISM Controlled Vocabulary Language. The PRISM Resource Category describes the genre, or the stereotypical form of the intellectual content of the resource. Sample genres include obituaries, biographies, and movie reviews. The Resource Category values form a controlled vocabulary for the prism:category element, defined by the PRISM specification.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="ISO-8859-1"?>

- <!--PRISM Controlled Vocabulary of content genres. The base URL for this vocabulary is http://prismstandard.org/vocabularies/2.0/genre.xml-->

- <rdf:RDF xmlns:rdf="http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#" xmlns:pcv="http://prismstandard.org/namespaces/pcv/2.0/">

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="abstract">

   <pcv:label>abstract</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>A section featuring the most important points of a work. [IPTC-NewsML]</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="acknowledgement">

   <pcv:label>acknowledgement</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>Written recognition of acts or achievements. [AAT]</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="advertisement">

   <pcv:label>advertisement</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>Piece of material whose presence is paid for. [IPTC-NewsML]</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="analysis">

   <pcv:label>analysis</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition> Articles which cover a topic in depth by dividing it into parts for detailed examination</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="authorBio">

   <pcv:label>authorBio</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>Brief text about the author of a work.</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="autobiography">

   <pcv:label>autobiography</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>Biography of an individual written by himself or herself. [AAT]</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

 

- <pcv:Descriptor rdf:ID="bibliography">

   <pcv:label>bibliography</pcv:label>

   <pcv:definition>A section describing lists of books or other textual materials arranged in some logical order giving brief information about the works, such as author, date, publisher, and place of publication; may be works by a particular author, or on a particular topic. [AAT]</pcv:definition>

  </pcv:Descriptor>

  :

  :

  :

</rdf:RDF>